Economic studies which examine the financing patterns of firms, particularly in emerging markets, seldom consider the market environment in which they operate. The most recent Asian financial crisis and its exposure of institutional failures in the context of financial sector liberalization show that these market conditions are vital. The positive relationship between a firm's excess cash flow and investment are well known, but the environment which determines retention of cash as opposed to paying dividends remains unresolved. The results of this survey suggest a framework by which future research in data collection, theoretical analysis, and empirical testing may be undertaken.
Land is important to all aspects of human life and has a key role in the economic well-being of society therefore, land tenure, land ownership, and real property law is a critical part of any developed nation. Together, the processes of how land parcels are held; how they are defined, measured, and described to allow economic transactions; how they are marked to allow their use and defense; and how they are legally protected have allowed for the orderly possession and use of land. In doing so, these processes have also provided the basis for the advanced economy of most developed nations. Very often, these processes-land tenure, boundary surveying, and cadastral systems-are considered separately. They are very much interrelated, and none of these processes may be completely understood without an understanding of the others. Land Tenure, Boundary Surveys, and Cadastral Systems provides an introduction to land tenure, cadastral systems, and boundary surveying, including an understanding of the interrelationship of these areas and their role in land tenure and real property law. This is especially true considering the advent of georeferenced cadastral maps reflecting the location of land parcels relative to many other components of the physical and legal infrastructure. Although intended as a basic text for college-level surveying courses, this book should also be of significant value to cadastral mappers, real property attorneys, land title professionals, and others involved with land transactions.
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