Policy search is a subfield of Reinforcement Learning (RL) that focuses on finding good parameters for a given policy parameterization. It is well suited tor robotics as it can cope with high-dimensional state and action spaces, which is one of the main challenges in robot learning. A Survey on Policy Search for Robotics reviews recent successes of both model-free and model-based policy search in robot learning. Model-free policy search is a general approach to learn policies based on sampled trajectories. This text classifies model-free methods based on their policy evaluation, policy update, and exploration strategies, and presents a unified view of existing algorithms. Learning a policy is often easier than learning an accurate forward model, and, hence, model-free methods are more frequently used in practice. However, for each sampled trajectory, it is necessary to interact with the robot, which can be time consuming and challenging in practice. Model-based policy search addresses this problem by first learning a simulator of the robot's dynamics from data. Subsequently, the simulator generates trajectories that are used for policy learning. For both model-free and model-based policy search methods, A Survey on Policy Search for Robotics reviews their respective properties and their applicability to robotic systems. It is an invaluable reference for anyone working in the area.
<b>A complete, hands-on guide to the use of statistical methods for obtaining reliable and practical survey research</b> <p> <p> <i>Applied Survey Methods</i> provides a comprehensive outline of the complete survey process, from design to publication. Filling a gap in the current literature, this one-of-a-kind book describes both the theory and practical applications of survey research with an emphasis on the statistical aspects of survey methods. <p> The book begins with a brief historic overview of survey research methods followed by a discussion that details the needed first steps for carrying out a survey, including the definition of a target population, the selection of a sampling frame, and the outline of a questionnaire with several examples that include common errors to avoid in the wording of questions. Throughout the book, the author provides an accessible discussion on the methodological problems that are associated with the survey process, outlining real data and examples while also providing insight on the future of survey research. Chapter coverage explores the various aspects of the survey process and the accompanying numerical techniques, including: <ul> <li> <div>Simple and composite sampling designs</div> <li> <div>Estimators</div> <li> <div>Data collection and editing</div> <li> <div>The quality of results</div> <li> <div>The non-response problem</div> <li> <div>Weighting adjustments and methods</div> <li> <div>Disclosure control</div> </ul> <p> The final chapter addresses the growing popularity of Web surveys, and the associated methodological problems are discussed, including solutions to common pitfalls. Exercises are provided throughout with selected answers included at the end of the book, while a related Web site features additional solutions to exercises and a downloadable demo version of the Blaise system of computer-assisted interviewing. Access to the freely available SimSam software is also available on the related Web site and provides readers with the tools needed to simulate samples from finite populations as well as visualize the effects of sample size, non-response, and the use of different estimation procedures. <p> <i>Applied Survey Methods</i> is an excellent book for courses on survey research and non-response in surveys at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It is also a useful reference for practicing statisticians and survey methodologists who work in both government and private research sectors.
In reproductive health (RH), commonlaw is instructive with respect to which arguments have not been advanced. RH law is a broader concept than the abortion rights, contraceptive access, procreative liberty, freedom of sexual expression, or patenting an invention. Featuring 62 multiple-choice questions at varying levels of difficulty, as well as 12 essay questions to give you practice issue-spotting and analyzing the law, this book covers various conflicts and tests in RH: constitutional law (freedom of expression, abortion rights, fetal viability, gender equality, advance directives, standing, constitutionality of several statutes), criminal law (indictment or arrest of a pregnant woman, maternal-fetal conflicts, fetal custody), contracts (arrangements under the Stark law, business associations, surrogacy contract), and intellectual property (patenting a matter of natural origin, trademarks and unfair competition, infringement, dilution, cybersquatting, and tarnishment disputes). The Law of Torts and the Law of the Patient Care (in the context of RH) are left for the upcoming serial. However, the current effort also covers malpractice suits.
In this provocative book, Alexander offers a sceptical appraisal of the claim that freedom of expression is a human right. He examines the various contexts in which a right to freedom of expression might be asserted and concludes that such a right cannot be supported in any of these contexts. He argues that some legal protection of freedom of expression is surely valuable, though the form such protection will take will vary with historical and cultural circumstances and is not a matter of human right. Written in a clear and accessible style, this book will appeal to students and professionals in political philosophy, law, political science, and human rights.
Mathematical Modeling and Immunology An enormous amount of human effort and economic resources has been directed in this century to the fight against cancer. The purpose, of course, has been to find strategies to overcome this hard, challenging and seemingly endless struggle. We can readily imagine that even greater efforts will be required in the next century. The hope is that ultimately humanity will be successful; success will have been achieved when it is possible to activate and control the immune system in its competition against neoplastic cells. Dealing with the above-mentioned problem requires the fullest pos- sible cooperation among scientists working in different fields: biology, im- munology, medicine, physics and, we believe, mathematics. Certainly, bi- ologists and immunologists will make the greatest contribution to the re- search. However, it is now increasingly recognized that mathematics and computer science may well able to make major contributions to such prob- lems. We cannot expect mathematicians alone to solve fundamental prob- lems in immunology and (in particular) cancer research, but valuable sup- port, however modest, can be provided by mathematicians to the research aspirations of biologists and immunologists working in this field.
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