Policy search is a subfield of Reinforcement Learning (RL) that focuses on finding good parameters for a given policy parameterization. It is well suited tor robotics as it can cope with high-dimensional state and action spaces, which is one of the main challenges in robot learning. A Survey on Policy Search for Robotics reviews recent successes of both model-free and model-based policy search in robot learning. Model-free policy search is a general approach to learn policies based on sampled trajectories. This text classifies model-free methods based on their policy evaluation, policy update, and exploration strategies, and presents a unified view of existing algorithms. Learning a policy is often easier than learning an accurate forward model, and, hence, model-free methods are more frequently used in practice. However, for each sampled trajectory, it is necessary to interact with the robot, which can be time consuming and challenging in practice. Model-based policy search addresses this problem by first learning a simulator of the robot's dynamics from data. Subsequently, the simulator generates trajectories that are used for policy learning. For both model-free and model-based policy search methods, A Survey on Policy Search for Robotics reviews their respective properties and their applicability to robotic systems. It is an invaluable reference for anyone working in the area.
The Bible is not written in chronological order. That is, if you read through the Bible from cover to cover, you'll jump around through different periods of history. And some events are repeated in different books, written by different authors, to different audiences, and for different purposes. This is one of the things that can make the Bible seem difficult or confusing. Being able to place the events you are reading about in their correct historical context helps you understand what you're reading. In 15 lessons, we're going to walk through the pages of history to gain a better perspective on how the parts of the Bible flow as one continuous storyline of what God is doing in the world. This Bible Surveyor Handbook provides an easy-to-understand overview of the entire Bible. At the end of each lesson, there are two suggested reading tracks: one for beginners who want to survey the Bible and one for intermediate students who want to explore the Bible more thoroughly. In addition, the suggested readings for each lesson may be downloaded in a convenient chart that can be printed and inserted in your Bible. You may download your free PDF of "101 Readings to Survey the Bible" or "Bible Explorer Readings" at www.ChristyBower.com in the "Downloads" section. And you never know what else you might find there.
In reproductive health (RH), commonlaw is instructive with respect to which arguments have not been advanced. RH law is a broader concept than the abortion rights, contraceptive access, procreative liberty, freedom of sexual expression, or patenting an invention. Featuring 62 multiple-choice questions at varying levels of difficulty, as well as 12 essay questions to give you practice issue-spotting and analyzing the law, this book covers various conflicts and tests in RH: constitutional law (freedom of expression, abortion rights, fetal viability, gender equality, advance directives, standing, constitutionality of several statutes), criminal law (indictment or arrest of a pregnant woman, maternal-fetal conflicts, fetal custody), contracts (arrangements under the Stark law, business associations, surrogacy contract), and intellectual property (patenting a matter of natural origin, trademarks and unfair competition, infringement, dilution, cybersquatting, and tarnishment disputes). The Law of Torts and the Law of the Patient Care (in the context of RH) are left for the upcoming serial. However, the current effort also covers malpractice suits.
A History of Freedom of Thought
By J. B. Bury
It is impossible to know with certainty what another person is thinking, making suppression difficult. The concept is developed throughout the Bible, most fully in the writings of Paul of Tarsus (e.g., "For why should my freedom [eleutheria] be judged by another's conscience [suneideseos]?" 1 Corinthians 10:29.).
Although Greek philosophers Plato and Socrates had discussed Freedom of Thought minimally, the edicts of King Ashoka (3rd century BC) have been called the first decree respecting Freedom of Conscience. In European tradition, aside from the decree of religious toleration by Constantine I at Milan in 313, the philosophers Themistius, Michel de Montaigne, Baruch Spinoza, Locke, Voltaire, Alexandre Vinet, and John Stuart Mill have been considered major proponents of the idea of Freedom of Conscience.
Queen Elizabeth I revoked a thought censorship law in the late sixteenth century, because, according to Sir Francis Bacon, she did "not [like] to make windows into men's souls and secret thoughts". During her reign, philosopher, mathematician, astrologer, and astronomer Giordano Bruno took refuge in England from the Italian Inquisition, where he published a number of his books regarding an infinite universe and other topics banned by the Catholic Church. After leaving the safety of England, Bruno was eventually burned as a heretic in Rome for refusing to recant his ideas. For this reason he is considered by some to be a martyr for free thought.
After a year's successful operation, the European DENIS project is now a scientific reality and its close cousin 2MASS (USA) is about to come into operation. The observational and data reduction processes of both DENIS and 2MASS are fully described in this volume. Already the impact of DENIS is making itself felt in the astronomical community in areas of research as diverse as cosmology, the evolution of galaxies, the interstellar medium, the search for brown dwarfs, and stellar structure and evolution. The first routine results from DENIS and the preliminary results from the 2MASS prototype camera are discussed and compared with other surveys across the wavelength spectrum, both space- and ground-based, including the Digitized Sky Survey, ISO and ROSAT.
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